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Showing 17 results for Mohammadi

Shiva Gheitaran Poorsahrigh, Seyed Abolghasem Mohammadi, Behzad Sadeghzadeh,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (5-2014)

Iron is one of the essential micronutrient, which has an important role in nitrogen fixation and activity of some enzymes such as catalase, peroxidase and cytochrome oxidase. To map QTLs related to accumulation of iron in shoot of barley at five leaves and maturity stages, 148 doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between Clipper and Sahara3771 varieties were evaluated under greenhouse condition and single plant iron concentration and content were measured. For QTL analysis by linkage map including, 26 retrotransposone markers IRAP and REMAP, 246 SSR and EST-SSR, 238 RFLP and one morphological markers was used. Analysis of variance revealed significant difference between lines for all the studies traits and presence of trangreesive segregation for all the traits and indicated presence of desirable parental allele combinations in the progenies. In total, 511 markers in 7 linkage covered 1099.09 cM of barley genome with an average distance of 2.37 cM between two adjacent markers. For single plant iron concentration, eight and four, iron content in single plant, six and three QTLs were identified at vegetative and maturity stages, respectively. Negative additive effects of the most QTLs indicate the role of Sahara3771 alleles in increased iron accumulation in offspring. One common genomics regions was detected for QTLs of single plant iron concentration and content at maturity which could be due to linkage between the QTLs or the pleiotropic effect of a single QTL.
Samira Mohammadi, Ali Ashraf Mehrabi, Ali Arminian, Arash Fazeli,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (5-2014)

Genetic diversity among 35 accessions of Ae. cylindrica using 17 ISSR primers were investigated. Totally, 190 alleles were amplified and 188 alleles (98.95%) o were polymorphic. Number of Amplified alleles ranged from 6 to 20 with average 11.18 alleles for each primer. Polymorphic information content (PIC) varied from 0.10 (primer UBC841) to 0.35 (primer UBC836). Marker index criterion ranged from 0.6 (primer UBC841) to 6 (primer 15). Cluster and Principal Coordinate Analysis could not completely separate accessions and showed no association between molecular diversity and geographic diversity of genotypes, indicating that there is high genetic diversity among accessions. West and south-west genotypes showed more diversity than genotypes from north and north-west of the country. Therefore, the center of diversity and origin of Aegilops cylindrica might be the western and south-western regions of country and this species might transferred from these regions to the northern parts of the country. Results of this study showed that ISSR markers are useful tools for management of genetic resources of wheat and their wild relative species.
Ali Shuorvazdi, Seyed Abuolghasem Mohammadi, Majid Norozi, Behzad Sadeghzadeh,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (5-2014)

Due to their adaptation to different environment conditions, landraces are valuable genetic resurces for incresing diversity of breeding germplasms and are potential resources for biotic and abiotic stress resistant genes. In the present study, genetic diversity and relationships of 119 barely landraces from different countries along with 25 commerical varieties and breeding lines were assessed, using 45 microsatellite primer pairs. In total, 225 alleles range from 2 to 14 and an average of 5 alleles per locus were amplified. Polymorphic information contenet (PIC) varied from 0.05 to 0.90 with a mean of 0.51. The minimum and maximum frequency of common allele belonged to EBMAC0788 (0.13) and GBM1411 (0.97) markers, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a higher within group variation (94%) than between group. Maximum and minimum Shannon’s and Nei gene diversity indices were observed in Iranian and Egyptian landraces, respectively. Cluster analysis using Minimum Evolution algorithm and P-distance coefficient assigned the studied genotypes into three groups. This grouping was partly consistent with geographical origins of the genotypes.
Samira Khodaei, Seyed Abolghasem Mohammadi, Behzad Sadeghzadeh,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)

Phosphorus is one of the important macronutrients involved in various physiological and metabolic pathways. It has also major role in development and transmission of energy. To map QTLs for the traits associated with phosphorus accumulation at shoot stage in barley, 148 doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between Sahara3771 and Clipper cultivars were evaluated in greenhouse condition. Analysis of variance showed, that significant differences among the lines for all traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for all traits. Linkage map of population consist of 246 SSR, EST-SSR markers, 238 RFLP, 26 retrotransposone markers including IRAP, REMAP and a morphological marker that coverd 1099.09 cM of barley genome and an average distance of 2.15 cM between two adjacent markers. In total, 13 QTLs were identified for phosphorus concentration and content at five-leaf and maturity stages. For phosphorus concentration and content at five leaf stages three and two QTLs were found, respectively. Four QTLs were detected for phosphorus concentration at maturity stage. Out of which three and one QTL showed positive and negative additive effects, respectively. For phosphorus content of single plant at maturity stage, four QTLs explaining 60% of phenotypic variance were mapped. Out of 13 QTLs identified for the trait, 10 QTLs had positive additive effects, indicating the role of Clipper alleles in this loci in increasing the related traits value in offspring. In the present study, one common QTL identified which could be due to genetic linkage or pleiotropic effect.
Davoud Sadeghzadeh-Ahari, Peyman Sharifi, Rahmatollah Karimizadeh, Mohtasham Mohammadi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (5-2015)

To estimate the genetic components and the mode of inheritance for some morphological traits, six rainfed durum wheat genotypes (Chehel daneh, Gerdish, Zardak, Syrian-1, Waha and Knd1149//68/ward) and their complete diallel progenies were grown in a randomized complete blocks design with two replications in 2005-06 cropping season in Maragheh Dryland Agricultural Research Station. Results of diallel analysis revealed that additive variance were important for inheritance of grain yield, number of grain per spike, spike length and number of fertile tiller than dominance variance. The positive value of ‘F’, indicated that there were excess of dominant alleles in comparison to recessive ones in the parents for all of the studied traits. The average degree of dominance (H1/D) 0.5 showed partial dominance for grain yield, number of grain per spike, spike length, 100 grains weight and number of fertile tiller and over-dominance for peduncle length. Graphic analysis indicated that increase of grain yield, number of grain per spike, spike length, 100 grains weight and number of fertile tiller were under the control of combination of recessive and dominance alleles. Predominance of additive effects for grain yield demonstrated that breeding methods based on selection may be advantageous in improving of this trait. The highest value of this trait relevant to Gerdish (10.33 g/plant), therefore this genotype can be used as cross parent in breeding programs for receiving to lines with high yield and yield components. The cross of Waha × Knd1149//68/ward with high value of GY and GCA for this trait can be used as a suitable cross for hybrid production.

Robab Salami, Seyed Abolghasem Mohammadi, Sara Ghafarian, Mohammad Moghaddam,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)

Barley is the most salt tolerant cereal‚ and is grown in a wide range of climatic conditions. To improve the plant tolerance to salinity‚ expression analysis of genes involved in stress tolerance could be effective in identification and development of tolerant genotypes. In this study, for evaluation of salinity effect on expression of Hv TIP2;3 and Hv TIP4;1 genes (encoding channel proteins in the membrane) in roots of barley, three genotypes; Clipper (salt susceptible), Sahara3771 (salt tolerant) and advanced breeding line (a salt tolerant line derived from a cross between Kavir and Sahra cultivars) were planted under 0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl. To determine the expression differences of these genes, RNA was extracted from root samples harvested at 24 hours, 3 days and 3 weeks after applying salinity treatments and cDNA was generated. Analysis of variance revealed a significant difference among genotypes, salinity levels and sampling stages for Hv TIP2;3 and Hv TIP4;1 genes expression pattern, whereas genotype × salinity interaction for Hv TIP2;3and genotype × sampling stage interaction were significant for both of the studied genes. The expression of TIP 2;3 gene in the 100 mM NaCl was increased in salt susceptible genotype Clipper and decreased in tolerant genotypes compared with control. Mean comparison of genotype and sampling combination showed that the expression level of Hv TIP4;1 gene at 3 weeks after salinity stress was increased in Sahara and advanced breeding line and decreased in Clipper. According to the results‚ it was confirmed that these genes are affected by salinity stress‚ and effective utilization of this genes in the barley in order to increase salinity tolerance could lead to desirable results. 
Mohtasham Mohammadi, Mozafar Roustaie,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (3-2016)

For development of high yield wheat cultivars, this study was conducted to estimate the general combining ability (GCA) of parents, specific combining ability (SCA) of hybrid progenies, heritability and heterosis of grain yield and some agronomic traits. A partial diallel crosses which obtained in a set of six wheat genotypes were sown in randomized complete block design at Gachsarann agricultural research station in 2013-14 growing season under dryland condition. The results of this study revealed a significant difference among the genotypes for all of the traits that indicating considerable genetic variation. Significant effects of GCA and SCA indicated role of additive and non-additive gene action in the control of all considered traits. The mean square ratio of GCA to SCA and Baker genetic ratio showed a preponderance of non-additive gene action for all of the studied traits. Broad-sense heritability was high (0.67-0.99) for all of them, which indicated the role of genetic factors compared with non-genetic factors for controlling of these traits. Narrow-sense heritability was low to moderate (0.06–0.37). Among the parents, Koohdasht was the best general combiners for early growth vigor, days to maturity, spike length, peduncle length, flag leaf extrusion and grain yield. The Koohdasht × DAMARA-6 hybrid showed the best specific cross for days to heading, days to maturity, grain filling period, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy temperature, grain length and grain yield. These hybrids showed positive and significant heterosis for grain yield, chlorophyll content and grain length and negative heterosis for plant height. It is expected to produce desirable segregants and could be exploited successfully in wheat improvement programs. In addition, because of preponderance of non-additive gene action for studied traits, particularly in the early generations, efficiency of genetic selection was low and selection for genetic improvement of these traits must be retraced in advanced generations.

Mohammad Ali Ebrahimi, Rahim Mohammadian, Marouf Khalili,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (9-2016)

Estimation of genetic variation in crops, a very important role in the development of breeding programs and preservation of genetic resources through morphological characteristics, is possible. To identifying genetic variation and double haploid barley lines classification in relation to germination traits, 72 lines derived from the cross of Steptoe and Morex were evaluated in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two replications, at three conditions including normal and two salinity levels of NaCl (100 and 200 mM NaCl). Investigated traits in this study were coefficient of velocity of germination, final germination percentage, mean germination daily, germination rate index and average germination speed. The results indicated that considerable genetic variation among genotypes in all traits. Genetical correlation based on average of the three environments indicated that high significant correlation exist (r= 0.85**) between the daily germination and final germination percentage. In this study, the highest value of phenotypic and genotypic variation coefficient, broad and narrow sense heritability and genetic gain were calculated for final germination percentag. Based on cluster analysis, barley genotypes were grouped into three categories and genotypes of the third cluster, were superior coefficient of variation of germination, germination percentage, germination rate and mean daily germination index, but had low a mount of germination rate. Therefore, the genotype of this group can be used in breeding for high germination percentage. Using principle component analysis; five traits were grouped in the form of two new variables that explained 99.061 percent of the total variance. Analysis biplot indicated that the genotypes of first group have a high percentage of germination index and germination index coefficients.
Hamed Khodayari, Lida Dolatian, Abdelnaser Mohammadi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (9-2017)

Figs as an important product in recent decades due to biotic and abiotic stresses have been faced to genetically erosion. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of taxa belonged to Ficus genus using Inter-simple sequence Repeat markers (ISSR). For this purpose, 23 accessions belonging to the fig genus collected from across the Iran country and genomic DNA was extracted from leaves. Out of 18 ISSR primers pairs, six primers pairs selected and PCR process were achieved for them. A total of 83 bands were produced, of which 78 were polymorphic. Using PAUP software, through Neighbor Joining methods, 23 populations of fig were divided in four groups. Among the primers, (AG) 8 C, (TG) 8 A and (GT) 8 C were identified as the most appropriate primers for using in future studies. Based on the results obtained from the analysis of data from ISSR, 23 populations of Ficus were classified into four groups. The results of the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that there is no difference between the taxa and the highest genetic distance between populations within species. The results of this study showed that taxa belonging to the Ficus genus in Iran are very closely related phylogentically, and the relationship between reproductive and genetic flow is high.
Soheila Shayan, Mohammad Moghaddam Vahed, Majid Norouzi, Seyed Abolghasem Mohammadi, Mahmoud Tourchi, Bafrin Molaei,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (3-2018)

Drought stress is one of the factors that reduces yield in the world. Considering that wheat is grown mostly in semi-arid areas, much attention has been paid to develop drought tolerant varieties. This experiment was conducted during 2013-2014 in Tabriz University research farm, Iran. In this investigation the inheritance of some agronomic and physiological traits was studied in the field condition through generations mean analysis. The generations were produced from the cross of Arg (tolerant to drought) and Moghan3 (sensitive to drought) varieties. The experiment was a split plot design based on randomized complete blocks with two replications. The irrigation conditions were arranged in the main plots and generations in the subplots. In the stress condition, irrigation was withheld after pollination. Based on the analysis of variance, significant difference were observed among different generations in terms of plant height, peduncle length, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, number of fertile tillers, leaf chlorophyll content, leaf temperature, days to maturity, spike weight, straw weight, biomass, grain yield and harvest index. The interaction between generations and irrigation conditions was significant only for grain yield. The generation mean analysis in both normal and drought stress conditions showed that chi-square of three parameter model was significant for all of the studied characteristics, indicating the presence of non-allelic interactions in the inheritance of these traits. The broad sense and narrow sense heritabilities for the traits under study were estimated as 0.502-0.946 and 0.244-0.429 in the normal condition and 0.653-0.951 and 0.221-0.377 in the water stress condition, respectively. The average degree of dominance for all of the characters in both normal and water stress conditions was greater than one which indicated the existence of over-dominance gene action in controlling these traits. At both conditions, the dominance genetic variance was higher than the additive genetic variance for all of the traits. The results indicate the necessity of selection in advanced generation or exploiting dominance gene action in the breeding programs, if hybrid varieties are produced in the wheat plant.
M Mohtasham Mohammadi, K Rahmatollah Karimizadeh, H Tahmaseb Hosseinpour, G Hasan Ghojogh, S Kamal Shahbazi, S Peyman Sharifi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (3-2018)

Breeding of adapted and variation germplasm can be a main element for strength of research political in stable agricultture system. This is achived by targeting variety selection onto different growing environments under natural heat and drought stresses. To realize this, breeding programs usually undertake a rigorous genotypes performance evaluation across locations and years mostly at the final stage of variety development process. More accurate selection of wheat genotypes requires reducing environmental effects for explaining of their genetic potential with appropriate analysis of genotype × environment. In this research, 18 improved bread wheat genotypes were planted in randomized compelet block design with 4 replications in Gachsaran, Khoramabad, Gonbad, Moghan and Ilam stations during three years (2011-2014). Simple and combined analysis variance were done on grain yield data. Due to significant interaction effects for Year × locatin and genotype × year × locatin, yield stability of considered genotypes were analysed using some parameteric and nonparametric methods. Obtained results showed genotypes no. 10 and 17 with 3107 and 3028 kg/ha had the highest grain yield. Based on parametric statistics: CVi, , , ،, MSY/L and MSPI and non-paramertric statistics: , , , Top, Mid, Low،, R-Sum, and SDR, G10 had more yield stability. More over, G12 and G17 showed suitable yiled stability among high production genotypes. Earliness Genotypes 10 and 17 lines had optimum plant height and partially high thousand kernel weight.
Faranak Khanmakoo, Seyed Abolghasem Mohammadi, Robab Salami, Saeed Aharizad,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (3-2019)

Fungal diseases, especially leaf and stripe rusts are wheat yield reducing factors in Iran and the world. In this study, genetic diversity of 20 wheat varieties with different response to leaf and stripe rusts were studied using primers designed based on the conserved regions of plant disease resistance genes. The banding patterns of polymorphic markers were scored as dominant and number of amplified bands and percentage of polymorphism were determined. In addition, for each primer combination, polymorphic information content (PIC) and marker index (MI) were calculated. Out of the 11 used single primers and primer combinations, five primer combinations and a single primer produced scorable amplification. The maximum and minimum of PIC were observed for LLOOP-1 and H2016-H2020 primer combination with mean value of 0.50 and 0.28, respectively. The primer combinations of H2016-H1146 and H2016-H2020 with mean values of 4.80 and of 2.84, had minimum and maximum of MI, respectively. Cluster analysis based on Neighbor-Joining algorithm and evolutionary P-distance coefficient assigned the varieties into four groups which were in agreement with their response to yellow rust. In principal coordinate analysis, the scatter plot of varieties based on two first coordinates confirmed the groups obtained from cluster analysis.
Seyed Ali Mohammad Mirmohammadi Maibody, Pooran Golkar,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (9-2019)

Plant Breeding has utilized a wide range of techniques and methods to improve the quality and quantity of plants. The molecular markers are the tools that have provided a new perspective for plant breeding advancements. This article has reviewed the various advantages and uses of molecular markers and the utilization of the high potential of natural polymorphisms within communities, combined with the abilities of conventional plant breeding methods. The marker attributes are not subject to environmental influence and their high frequency of these markers in their number, high structural diversity are as part of their benefits in identifying identities, determining the genetic diversity of species and studying relationship between populations. They may aid in discovering more information about protecting and maintaining genetic stock collections, identifying varieties, determining genes with chromosomal location and the number of genes controlling traits. Genome sequencing, the preparation of physical and genetic maps, genomic fingerprinting of plants are some of the other applications of this tool in plant breeding. The high efficiency of selection with the help of markers in selection of genotypes has been emphasized as the parent of crosses and selection with the help of a marker in breeding programs and genomic selection. New technologies offers new opportunities to shape genetic variation in the improvement of specific plant breeding programs. Nowadays development of next-generation sequencing technology, genome sequencing and high throughput approaches for markers have facilitated EST-derived simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) marker development as well as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker. These markers can be successfully employed in accelerating research and plant breeding programs.

Ali Akbar Asadi, Mostafa Valizadeh, Seyed Abolghasem Mohammadi, Manochehr Khodarahmi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (3-2020)

Dehydration is the most important limiting factor in agricultural production in arid and semi-arid regions, and water shortages (especially at the reproductive stages) due to lack of precipitation and unequal distribution are inappropriate for limiting the yield. In this research, cross between the Gasspard cultivar (dehydrated susceptible parent) and DN11 line (resistant parent) was performed. F1, F2, F3, BC1 and BC2 generations along with parents, were planted in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications in normal and water deficit conditions for two consecutive years. Physiological traits were measured for single plant samples. Weighted analysis of variance showed that water deficit stress caused significant decrease in flag leaf area and unsignificant decrease in stomatal conductance. Generation mean analysis for Chlorophyll index was accompanied by different results in terms of regression fitted models for each environment, but for stomatal conductance, the results of the generation mean analysis were the same in both environments. In addition to additive and dominant effects, epistatic interaction effects also played role in the inheritance of all studied traits. Most of these effects were double-effects. In flag leaf area, additive, additive × dominant and dominant × dominant effects were involved in inheritance. In water relative content, in addition to these effects, dominant effect was also involved in inheritance. Generations variance analysis showed that the gene action was additive for relative water content, dominant for flag leaf area and over dominant (in both conditions) for stomatal conductance. The gene action for Chlorophyll index under stress and normal conditions were over dominant and additive respectively.

Seyed Sajad Sohrabi, Seyyed Mohsen Sohrabi, Seyed Karim Mousavi, Mohsen Mohammadi,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (9-2020)

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is the most valuable and expensive spice in the world. The stigmas of saffron are the source of valuable apocarotenoids such as crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. transcriptomic and expression studies of genes are important steps in investigating of secondary metabolites in plants. One of the important prerequisites for such studies is the existence of reliable and stable reference genes to normalize the expression of other genes. In the present study, eight reference genes were identified and isolated using transcriptome of saffron and their expression stability was evaluated by nonparametric statistics and methods. The results of amplification and sequencing showed accurate identification of eight reference genes Actin, EF1, GAPDH, H3, MDH, TBP, UBC and UBQ. The expression stability evaluation revealed that MDH and UBQ genes had the highest stability among different saffron tissues and TBP had the lowest stability among them. In this study, for first time, eight reference genes were isolated from saffron and their expression stability was evaluated. The reference genes identified in the present study can be used as stable genes to normalize gene expression in transcriptomic and expression studies of saffron plant.  

Razieh Azizian Mosleh, Mohammad Reza Abdollahi, Hassan Sarikhani, Asghar Mirzaie-Asl, Payam Pour Mohammadi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (3-2021)

Optimization of in vitro methods for the production of maize double haploids plays an important role in the breeding programs of this plant. In this study, the effects of 5-azacytidine on agronomic traits, androgenesis induction efficiency and also, DNA methyltransferase gene expression (AF229183.1) in two growth stages of maize were investigated. This experiment was performed as factorial based on a completely randomized block design with three replications. Two maize genotypes (DH5 × DH7 and ETMH-82) were considered as the first factor and treatment of maize seeds with 5-azacytidine (0, 5, 10, and 100 μM) was considered as the second factor. The maize seeds were sowed in the field and during the growth stages, various morphological and agronomic traits were recorded. In the anther culture experiment, the suitable anthers containing microspores at mid to late-uninucleate stages were selected and cultured in an YPm culture medium containing 1 mg/l 2, 4-D, and 2 mg/l BAP. Interaction effects of genotype and 5-azacytidine concentrations showed significant differences for the majority of studied traits except for number of kernel per ear row, kernel depth, plant diameter, number of leaves and number of ears. The highest amounts of 1000-kernel weight were obtained with treatments of 10 and 100 μM and the highest ones for grain yield and biological yield traits were obtained with 100 μM 5-azacytidine treatment for both genotypes. Seeds of DH5 × DH7 genotype treated with 5 μM 5-azacYtidine produced the highest mean number of embryo-like structures (0.1833) and regenerated plantlets (0.067) per each anther. Relative expression of DNA methyltransferase gene in maize seeds treated with different concentrations of 5-azacytidine showed a significant decrease in both genotypes and both growth stages compared to control plants (treated with 0 μM 5-azacytidine), that this decrease in gene expression could lead to improved androgenesis induction in anther culture of DH5 × DH7 genotype. However, despite the decrease in expression of this gene in two growth stages of ETMH-82 genotype, androgenesis induction was not observed in this genotype. The results of the present study can help to determine the role of epigenetic factors in androgenesis induction and improving the production of haploid plants in maize.

Ahmad Kaab Omeyr, Payam Pourmohammadi, Abdolali Gilani, Khalil Alami-Saeid, Mohammad Fakhari,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (3-2022)

Various strategies have been developed to reduce water consumption in rice cultivation, including rice cultivation in water-saturated soil, drying and wetting of the soil (periodic irrigation), and aerobic rice cultivation. In this study, in order to identify and grouping rice cultivars suitable for aerobic cultivation, 34 cultivars of native and improved rice cultivars were selected and evaluated. Factor analysis based on principal components analysis based on all traits showed that 6 factors were extracted with special values of more than one. These 6 factors, after the Varimax rotation, justify the 6 main and independent factors, justifying 78.08% of the total variation. In the first harvest, cluster analysis using WARD method, cultivars were grouped into 4 groups, which cluster 3 being the largest cluster. Discriminant analysis of first harvest, showed that all cultivars were grouped correctly. In canonical discriminant the first two canonical functions with eigenvalues greater than one explained a total of 88.9% of the variance. In cluster analysis based on the average of the data obtained from Raton product, genotypes were divided into two different groups. The genotypes of the first group were higher than the genotypes of the second group in terms of yield and yield components and were introduced as superior genotypes. Heritability with genetic improvement for leaf area duration, number of seedling (grown plants), number of spikes per unit area, number of full seeds and degree of maturity showed that these traits can be transferred to hybrid offspring and selections based on these traits are effective.

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