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Showing 49 results for Subject: Plant improvement

Shiva Gheitaran Poorsahrigh, Seyed Abolghasem Mohammadi, Behzad Sadeghzadeh,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (5-2014)
Abstract

Iron is one of the essential micronutrient, which has an important role in nitrogen fixation and activity of some enzymes such as catalase, peroxidase and cytochrome oxidase. To map QTLs related to accumulation of iron in shoot of barley at five leaves and maturity stages, 148 doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between Clipper and Sahara3771 varieties were evaluated under greenhouse condition and single plant iron concentration and content were measured. For QTL analysis by linkage map including, 26 retrotransposone markers IRAP and REMAP, 246 SSR and EST-SSR, 238 RFLP and one morphological markers was used. Analysis of variance revealed significant difference between lines for all the studies traits and presence of trangreesive segregation for all the traits and indicated presence of desirable parental allele combinations in the progenies. In total, 511 markers in 7 linkage covered 1099.09 cM of barley genome with an average distance of 2.37 cM between two adjacent markers. For single plant iron concentration, eight and four, iron content in single plant, six and three QTLs were identified at vegetative and maturity stages, respectively. Negative additive effects of the most QTLs indicate the role of Sahara3771 alleles in increased iron accumulation in offspring. One common genomics regions was detected for QTLs of single plant iron concentration and content at maturity which could be due to linkage between the QTLs or the pleiotropic effect of a single QTL.
Samira Mohammadi, Ali Ashraf Mehrabi, Ali Arminian, Arash Fazeli,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (5-2014)
Abstract

Genetic diversity among 35 accessions of Ae. cylindrica using 17 ISSR primers were investigated. Totally, 190 alleles were amplified and 188 alleles (98.95%) o were polymorphic. Number of Amplified alleles ranged from 6 to 20 with average 11.18 alleles for each primer. Polymorphic information content (PIC) varied from 0.10 (primer UBC841) to 0.35 (primer UBC836). Marker index criterion ranged from 0.6 (primer UBC841) to 6 (primer 15). Cluster and Principal Coordinate Analysis could not completely separate accessions and showed no association between molecular diversity and geographic diversity of genotypes, indicating that there is high genetic diversity among accessions. West and south-west genotypes showed more diversity than genotypes from north and north-west of the country. Therefore, the center of diversity and origin of Aegilops cylindrica might be the western and south-western regions of country and this species might transferred from these regions to the northern parts of the country. Results of this study showed that ISSR markers are useful tools for management of genetic resources of wheat and their wild relative species.
Bahareh Zakerghoran, Hamid Rajabi Memari, Daryoosh Nabati Ahmadi, Marzieh Siahmard,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (5-2014)
Abstract

The production of human gamma interferon in eukaryote expression systems refers as a therapeutic recombinant protein which has significant impact in medical studies. Unique com position of gamma interferon makes such protein as a suitable tool against cancer. It is documented that phosphinothricin (PPT) classified as non-selective herbicide group of bialaphos acts an inhibitor for glutamine synthetase. The bar gene is encoding the phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase (PAT) enzyme. This enzyme capable of boosting resistance against PPT herbicide, thus it can be selected as a selective marker within plant population. Then various colony PCR techniques, enzymatic digestion and sequencing were used to confirm the accuracy of fusion of IFNγ-bar gens within expression transporter. Using freezing and thawing method to transfer the pCAMBIA1305.1- IFNγ-bar construction into strain of LBA4404 of agrobacterium, then disc leaves was used to integrate into the genomic of tobacco plant. The transgenic plants were selected under selector condition which possess 30 mg/l of hygromycin. After the developed roots were transferred into soil, and PCR technique was used to confirm the presence of IFNγ-bar in the genomic of plants. Dot blot analysis was applied to detect IFNγ-bar protein in transgenic of to tobacco plants.
Maryam Ahmadi, Mustafa Valizadeh, Mahmoud Tourchi, Mohammad Moghaddam Vahed, Hossein Mohammadzadeh Jalaly,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (5-2014)
Abstract

For evaluation of genetic diversity among improved alfalfa varieties and Iranian landraces, 12 populations including five improved varieties (Kaysari, Kadi, Ranger, Mesmir, Seariver) and seven landraces (Gharayonje, Amozeynadin, Rahnani, Tazekand, Shazand, Hamedani, Yazdi) were evaluated using agronomic traits and enzyme markers. Thirty-five individuals of each variety were grown and analyzed in separate pots in a unbalanced completely randomized design (CRD). Analysis of variance for agronomic traits showed significant differences for most of the traits among improved and landrace varieties. For esterase and peroxidase enzymes based on presence or absence of enzyme bands (1, 0) eleven polymprphic isozyme bands were detected. For improved and landrace varieties Shanon index mean was 0.48 ± 0.246 and 0.519 ± 0.193, respectively, furthermore Nei genetic diversity index mean for improved and landraces was 0.327 ± 0.181 and 0.352 ± 0.148 respectively, suggesting no difference between improved and landrace varieties was found. Analysis of relation between isozyme markers and agronomic traits showed that there are significant differences between the presence of POX-4 and wet and dry yield in improved varieties.
Ali Shuorvazdi, Seyed Abuolghasem Mohammadi, Majid Norozi, Behzad Sadeghzadeh,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (5-2014)
Abstract

Due to their adaptation to different environment conditions, landraces are valuable genetic resurces for incresing diversity of breeding germplasms and are potential resources for biotic and abiotic stress resistant genes. In the present study, genetic diversity and relationships of 119 barely landraces from different countries along with 25 commerical varieties and breeding lines were assessed, using 45 microsatellite primer pairs. In total, 225 alleles range from 2 to 14 and an average of 5 alleles per locus were amplified. Polymorphic information contenet (PIC) varied from 0.05 to 0.90 with a mean of 0.51. The minimum and maximum frequency of common allele belonged to EBMAC0788 (0.13) and GBM1411 (0.97) markers, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed a higher within group variation (94%) than between group. Maximum and minimum Shannon’s and Nei gene diversity indices were observed in Iranian and Egyptian landraces, respectively. Cluster analysis using Minimum Evolution algorithm and P-distance coefficient assigned the studied genotypes into three groups. This grouping was partly consistent with geographical origins of the genotypes.
Valiollah Yousefi, Abdollah Najaphy, Alireza Zebarjadi, Hooshmand Safari,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (5-2014)
Abstract

Thymus, an aromatic medicinal plant, is a well-known, perennial and woody herb from Lamiaceae family. Thymus is taxonomically a very complex genus with a high frequency of hybridization and introgression among sympatric species, and some species of this herb are endemic to Iran. In the present study, in order to identification genetic variability in this medicinal plant seven Thymus spp. accessions collected from different regions of Iran along with London agricultural species were studied by karyotypic characteristics. The secondary basic numbers in all ecotypes was x = 15 that probably originate from a primary basic number x = 7. The ploidy levels of these ecotypes were diploid and tetraploid. The Thymus ecotypes under study occupied classes 1A and 1B of Stebbins’ karyotype classification, indicating the presence of a primitive symmetrical karyotype in these ecotypes. The mean chromosome length ranged from 1.03 to 1.53 µm. chromosome types were detected as metacentric “m”. Furthermore, the cluster analysis using chromosomal parameters and based on UPGMA assigned the ecotypes into four groups.
Mahdieh Sahshorpour, Jafar Amani, Mahyat Jafari, Ali Hatef Salmanian,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (5-2014)
Abstract

One of the important pathogens which cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans is enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7. Cattle are the most important reservoir of this bacterium. EspA and Intimin are two protein factors for bacteria colonization on intestinal epithelium and cause attaching/effacing lesion. The LEE pathogenicity islands code these proteins. EspA is part of type III secretion systems which delivers Tir to the host cell and integrate to membrane. Intimin encoded by eae gene and fused to Tir. In this research we supposed that chimeric recombinant form of EI gene containing EspA and Intimin were fused with a linker as an edible candidate vaccine would reduce colonization of E. coli O157:H7 in animal model. We constructed a synthetic gene EspA (E120) and intimin (Int282) fused by (EAAAK)4 sequence. The synthetic gene (EI) was codon optimized and subcloned into plant expression vector (PBI121) under CaMV35S promoter and then transferred to tobacco plant by agrobacterium mediated protocol. The presence of inserted gene in plant genome was documented by PCR and RT-PCR methods. The amount of EI protein in transgenic tobacco leaves were estimated 0.1% of the total soluble protein (TSP) by ELISA method.
Farhad Nazarian Firouzabadi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

Starch, a complex carbohydrate, is a polymer of glucose residues. It occurs in two main forms: amylose, consisting of predominantly linear chains of glucose units linked by α(1-4) glycosidic bonds, and amylopectin, in which the chains are highly branched by the addition of α(1-6) glycosidic bonds. Depending upon the plant species and the site of storage, the proportion between these two components varies. In most plant species, amylose comprises about 20% of the starch and the rest is amylopectin. Although in its native form it has some applications in food and non-food industries, the properties of currently available starches (native starch) do not comply with most industrial standard and enhanced commercial applications. To obtain starches with particular properties such as starches with lower retrogradation and more freeze-thaw stability, starch is often chemically modified. Manipulation of the starch structure with chemical reactions or additives will eventually impart certain properties which are desired for industrial uses. Techniques including cross-linking (to strengthen against shear) or acetylation (to reduce the retrogradation) are the most common starch modifications. The use of chemicals, however, may not only cause concern over health and safety, but there is also a cost involved with the chemical modification. Knocking out/ over expression of genes involved in starch biosynthesis, has resulted to alteration of starch physic-chemical properties. Production of biopolymers consisting of glucose residues linked by α(1-3) and α(1-6) or an alternatives [(α(1-3,6), α(1-4,6)] of these linkages, are among hot topics in polysaccharides research fields.
Samira Khodaei, Seyed Abolghasem Mohammadi, Behzad Sadeghzadeh,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

Phosphorus is one of the important macronutrients involved in various physiological and metabolic pathways. It has also major role in development and transmission of energy. To map QTLs for the traits associated with phosphorus accumulation at shoot stage in barley, 148 doubled haploid lines derived from a cross between Sahara3771 and Clipper cultivars were evaluated in greenhouse condition. Analysis of variance showed, that significant differences among the lines for all traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for all traits. Linkage map of population consist of 246 SSR, EST-SSR markers, 238 RFLP, 26 retrotransposone markers including IRAP, REMAP and a morphological marker that coverd 1099.09 cM of barley genome and an average distance of 2.15 cM between two adjacent markers. In total, 13 QTLs were identified for phosphorus concentration and content at five-leaf and maturity stages. For phosphorus concentration and content at five leaf stages three and two QTLs were found, respectively. Four QTLs were detected for phosphorus concentration at maturity stage. Out of which three and one QTL showed positive and negative additive effects, respectively. For phosphorus content of single plant at maturity stage, four QTLs explaining 60% of phenotypic variance were mapped. Out of 13 QTLs identified for the trait, 10 QTLs had positive additive effects, indicating the role of Clipper alleles in this loci in increasing the related traits value in offspring. In the present study, one common QTL identified which could be due to genetic linkage or pleiotropic effect.
Mohammad Majdi, Ghasem Karimzade, Mohammad Ali Malboobi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

Feverfew (Tanacetum partheniumL. Schulz Bip.) is a medicinal herb belonging to the Asteraceae which recently raised researcher’s attention due to its medicinal value and pharmacological activities, especially as a migraine prophylaxis agent and also for treatment of cancer. Parthenolide has a sesquiterpene lactone structure which is most likely synthesized through the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway. Recently, it has been shown that there is cross a talk between the MVA and the MEP pathways through IDP (Iosopentenyl diphosphate) exchange as a precursor for the biosynthesis of different terpenes hence, parthenolide biosynthesis could be affected by the MEP pathway as well. In the present work, the relative gene expression of two key genes of the MVA pathway, including 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) and germacrene A synthase (GAS) and two key genes of the MEP pathway including 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) and hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl4-diphosphate reductase (HDR) were examined in leaves derived from the vegetative or generative phases, also in flowers using real time PCR. The results of our study showed that expression of these genes depend on the growth stage and genotype. Moreover, in which in the flowers and leaves derived from vegetative phase in different genotypes only the TpGAS gene expression showed a significant difference, while in the leaves derived of generative phase the relative gene expression showed a significant difference for TpHMGR, TpGAS and TpDXR.
Pariya Dorri, Saeed Khavari Khorasani, Mahmood Vali Zadeh, Parisa Taheri,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

Selection of breeding methods for plant genetic improvement largely depends on the genetic basis of selected traits. This research was carried out in order to study the genetic parameters of phenological and morphological traits , yield and yield components of maize using generation mean analysis of inbred lines derived from crosses KE72012 (P1) × K1263 / 1 (P2) inbred lines. This study was conducted at Torough Station of Khorasan Razavi Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center, Mashhad, Iran, during 2012. Six maize generations include BC2, BC1, F2, F1, P2 and P1 was evaluated in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Analysis of variance showed higher dominance gene effects than additive effects. Average dominance gene effects (H / D) ½ in all measured traits, showed complete and over dominance gene effects indicating the importance of dominance effect in studied traits. A simple additive-dominance model performed using weighted least square analysis. Results showed not it’s adequacy for traits, indicating the importance of epistatic effects in controlling genetic variations. Broad sense heritability for all measured traits in crosses KE72012 (P1) × KE1263 / 1 (P2) ranged between 0.10 to 0.88 and the range of narrow sense heritability in this cross was between 0.02 to 0.59. Estimation of number of genes controlling grain yield showed that the one to five genes are involved in KE72012 (P1) × K1263 / 1 (P2).
Reza Mir Drikvand, Goodarz Najafian, Mohammad Reza Bihamta, Asa Ebrahimi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

This study was conducted to identify markers associated with some kernel traits in bread wheat in two separate experiments under field and laboratory. One hundred wheat genotypes were evaluated in an alpha lattice experimental design with two replications. Grain hardness, seed length, seed width and thousand kernel weights were measured. Association mapping was performed based on 96 unlinked and 22 SSR QTL linked markers, using structure and Tassel software. Correction for population structure was performed using genome wide SSR markers so that genotypes were divided into six sub-populations. Totally, 35 SSR markers linked to traits were detected eight of them being QTL linked markers and other markers that were linked to traits, were used to investigate population structure. The QTLs linked markers were as follows: Chromosomes 5B, 5D and 6D had three QTL for grain hardness. Nine QTLs were detected on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 2D, 5B, 5D, 6D and 7B for kernel length, kernel width and thousand kernel weights. The results of this study demonstrate that association mapping is a useful approach to complement and enhance previous QTL information for marker-assisted selection in wheat.
Sedigh Ebrahimi, Abdolhossein Rezaei Nejad, Ahmad Ismaili, Farhad Karami,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

Evaluation of genetic diversity among apricot genotypes may increase our genetic knowledge and provide better plant materials for selection of desirable genotypes. In this study, genetic diversity of 26 apricot genotypes phenological and physiological traits of 26 apricot cultivars collected at Kurdistan agricultural research station was studied based on a randomized complete block design with three replications for phenological and physiological traits. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of genotype on flower initiation, flowering period, relative water content (RWC), ion leakage, proline and potassium content of flower pistil tissue, spring frost damage to flowers, harvest date, total soluble solids, titratable Acidity (TA) and pH was significant at the 1% level. These results indicated that the existence of significant genetic variation among studied genotypes. The lowest heritability (28.5%) was belonged to date of 50% flowering, indicating the strong effect of environmental factors on this trait. The highest heritability (99%) estimated for related traits to yield including total soluble solids, fruit harvesting period and uniform rippening, suggested that the influence of environmental effects on these traits were very low.
Elham Ghazizadeh, Amir Mousavi, Faranak Hadi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (2-2015)
Abstract

As genetically modified organisms (GMOs) development is now increasing, detection and determination of their quantitative threshold using reliable methods would be necessary. The goal of this study was to introduce a sensitive method for qualitative and quantitative detection of Roundup-ready soybean samples. For primary screening, semi-quantitative molecular assays have been used for detection of various percentages of transgenic and non-transgenic Roundup-ready soybean samples. Furthermore, an experiment was conducted using the CaMV 35S primers in combinations with soybean lectin-specific primers in two imported samples of soybean seeds. Real-time PCR-based analysis indicated that the amount of GMO material in the seeds and the limit of detection (LOD) obtained for 35S sequence was less than 1%. The sensitivity and accuracy of this method had conformity with the international standards of seed labeling. This is the first report of its type for quantitative detection of a genetically modified material in a commercial seed lot in Iran.
Soheila Afkar, Ghasem Karimzadeh, Mokhtar Jalali Javaran,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (5-2015)
Abstract

Peppermint (Mentha piperita L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants. Menthol is the major monoterpene constituent of peppermint’s essential oil, which is used for pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food industries. This work was aimed to study the expression pattern of important genes (Pr, Mfs, Ls) in menthol biosynthesis pathway in different plant’s organs (leaf, flower and stem) at the beginning of flowering stage. The peppermint plants were supplied from Iranian Institute of Medicinal Plants and were transferred into a greenhouse in pots. Analysis of variance showed that there is a significant difference between leaf, flower and stem, with respect to mRNA transcript level. The results of this study indicated that the level of gene expression of Pr, Mfs and Ls were altered in the different organs. There are direct relationship between the content of menthone and menthofuran and level of gene expressions of Pr and Mfs genes in flower and leaf respectively. It can be concluded that probably the expression of Mfs and Pr genes in these organs may be regulated at transcriptional level.


Zeinab Bahari, Abdolali Shojaeiyan, Sajad Rashidi Monfared, Amin Mirshekari, Khadije Nasiri, Marzieh Amiriyan,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (5-2015)
Abstract

Knowledge about the amount of genetic diversity and understanding relationship between species and landraces is an important step in plant germplasm conservation. In this study, within and between genetic diversity of 17 dill landraces (Anethum graveolens L.) from different areas of Iran was evaluated using five ISSR markers. In total, 29 polymorphic bands were generated. The average of polymorphism was 54.7%. The highest and the lowest values of Polymorphic Information Contents were 0.46 for ((CA)8G primer) and 0.40 for ((AG)8T primer), respectively, and with an average of 0.43. Based on the highest and the lowest indices of Polymorphic Loci (0.392 and 0.248), expected heterozygosity (93.10 and 62.07) and shannon's Information Index (0.567 and 0.360) between all populations, the highest and lowest genetic diversity was detected among Ardebil and Azarshahr genotypes, respectively. The genetic dissimilarity matrix showed that Sari and Kerman populations had the highest genetic distance and Ardabil and Borazjan populations had the lowest ones. Partitioning variations within and between populations, using an analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), showed that 12% of the total genetic variation existed between growing regions. Cluster analysis based on UPGMA method showed a poor relationship between genetic distance and the geographical grouping of dills.


Maryam Javedan Asl, Hamid Rajabi Memari, Daryoosh Nabati Ahmadi, Afrasiyab Rahnama Ghahfarokhi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (5-2015)
Abstract

Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) is an herbaceous and perennial plant species which belongs to the Asteraceae family. Yarrow's essential oil has different compounds of monoterpene and sesquiterpens, which its main constituents are pinene and linalool. These compunds have anti-microbial and anti-pest activities and also can be used in the food industry, perfumery and cosmetics.The aim of the present study was to use the degenerate primers approach in order to isolate Pinene synthase and linalool synthase genes from Yarrow plant. Up to date, there is no any report on the availability of these genes in the world gene bank. In this investigation the total RNA was extracted from Yarrow then pinene synthase and linalool synthase genes were isolated, using degenerate primers and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). PCR amplified two bands of 250 bp and 720 bp. The sequence data were compared with NCBI gene bank data. The results of diversity study among varieties and families based on Pis and Lis genes showed most similarity between Achillea and Artemisia plants. Also this similarity was seen between Asteraceae and Lamiaceae families and these families grouped together same group. These results also showed a relatively high similarity of Pis and Lis with some other plants which confirmed sequencing data.


Reza Mir Drikvand, Asma Khyrolahi, Asa Ebrahimi, Mohammad Rezvani,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (5-2015)
Abstract

In this study, genetic diversity of 25 rainfed bread and durum wheat genotypes were assessed using 20 SSR primers that all of them were generated scorable bands. Totally 69 alleles (ranged between 2 allele for Xcfd40 and Xgwm369, and 5 allele for Xbarc54 primers per each locus), were distinguished. Polymorphic information content (PIC) for all SSR primers was calculated. The highest (0.98) and the lowest (0.64) amount of PIC was pertained to Xcfd40 and Xgwm30 primers, respectively. Based on similarity matrix, the highest and lowest genetic similarity was belonged to Seri82 and Seri (0.86) and Sita/chil and Baviacora (0.14), respectively. Cluster analysis could distinct spring and winter wheat genotypes and as well as bread and durum wheat genotypes. It was concluded that SSR marker was suitable for evaluation of genetic diversity in rainfed wheat genotypes. This genetic diversity can be used in wheat breeding programs.


Davoud Sadeghzadeh-Ahari, Peyman Sharifi, Rahmatollah Karimizadeh, Mohtasham Mohammadi,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (5-2015)
Abstract

To estimate the genetic components and the mode of inheritance for some morphological traits, six rainfed durum wheat genotypes (Chehel daneh, Gerdish, Zardak, Syrian-1, Waha and Knd1149//68/ward) and their complete diallel progenies were grown in a randomized complete blocks design with two replications in 2005-06 cropping season in Maragheh Dryland Agricultural Research Station. Results of diallel analysis revealed that additive variance were important for inheritance of grain yield, number of grain per spike, spike length and number of fertile tiller than dominance variance. The positive value of ‘F’, indicated that there were excess of dominant alleles in comparison to recessive ones in the parents for all of the studied traits. The average degree of dominance (H1/D) 0.5 showed partial dominance for grain yield, number of grain per spike, spike length, 100 grains weight and number of fertile tiller and over-dominance for peduncle length. Graphic analysis indicated that increase of grain yield, number of grain per spike, spike length, 100 grains weight and number of fertile tiller were under the control of combination of recessive and dominance alleles. Predominance of additive effects for grain yield demonstrated that breeding methods based on selection may be advantageous in improving of this trait. The highest value of this trait relevant to Gerdish (10.33 g/plant), therefore this genotype can be used as cross parent in breeding programs for receiving to lines with high yield and yield components. The cross of Waha × Knd1149//68/ward with high value of GY and GCA for this trait can be used as a suitable cross for hybrid production.


Mahdi Kakaei, Hojatollah Mazahery-Laghab,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (5-2015)
Abstract

In order to identify the correlation between different agronomical traits and the study of their relation using regression analysis, 46 alfalfa populations were studied in the research farm at Bu-Ali Sina University in 2013. Analysis of variance for different traits revealed a significant difference between populations for dry forage yield at the level of 1% probability. The genotypic ccorrelation coefficients of fresh forage yield with the amounts of leaf chlorophyll (SPAD) (0.952**), plant height at 10% flowering stage with fresh forage (0.987**), dry matter yield with fresh forage yield (-0.942**), dry forage yield with plant height at 10% flowering stage (0.676*) and dry matter percent (0.896*) showed significant correlations. Phenotypic correlation analysis showed a positive and significant correlation between damage percent and the number of larvae (0.767**), a negative and significant correlation between dry material percent and fresh forage yield (-0.450**). However, dry matter percent had a negative and significant correlation with dry forage yield (0.424**). The stepwise regression for fresh forage yield as dependent variable showed that dry forage yield, dry matter percent, plant height in 10% flowering stage and number of larvae were respectively entered to the model and with 89.29% of cumulative contrast coefficient confirmed the most variations of fresh forage yield. Furthermore, the maximum and minimum heritability percent was depended to the number of Larvae and dry forage yield respectively. Naragamet population (No. 30) with a high yield of dry forage and the number of larvae and also a relatively low level of damage percent among other populations could be suggested as a desirable and tolerant population



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