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Showing 13 results for Distribution

Keyvan Abbasi, Mehdi Moradi, Alireza Mirzajani, Morteza Nikpour, Yaghobali Zahmatkesh, Asghar Abdoli, Hamed Mousavi-Sabet,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (12-2019)
Abstract

The Anzali Wetland is one of the most important water bodies in Iran, due to the Caspian migratory fish spawning, located in the southern Caspian Sea basin, Iran. During a long-term monitoring program, between 1994 to 2019, identification and distribution of fish species were surveyed in five different locations inside the Anzali Wetland and eleven related rivers in its catchment area. In this study 72 fish species were recognized belonging to 19 orders, 21 families and 53 genera, including 66 species in the wetland and 53 species in the rivers. Among the 72 identified species, 34 species were resident in freshwater, 9 species were anadromous, 9 species live in estuarine and the others exist in different habitats. These species include 4 endemic species, 50 native species and 18 exotic species to Iranian waters. The number of species in different locations inside the Anzali Wetland was comparatively similar while it had high variation in different rivers. Twenty fish species are new records for the Anzali Wetland basin, including 10 estuarine, 5 ornamental, 2 riverine, one anadromous, one euryhaline and a small exotic fish.

Kopila Kafle, Dol Raj Thanet, Prabin Poudel, Deepak Gautam, Goma Thapa, Pradeep Bhatt,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2020)
Abstract

Wildlife corridors connect isolated patches of habitat and support the movement of migratory species from one site to another. Human disturbances cause forest degradation and habitat fragmentation adding to the high risk of species extinction. We laid out 44 grids of 2 km × 2 km in Laljhadi Mohana Biological Corridor (LMBC). In each grid, we generated line transects ranging from 1.5 to 2 km and a systematic line transect survey was carried out with single replication to assess the distribution and relative abundance of large mammals. GPS coordinates were recorded for each direct sighting or indirect sign. Similarly, a local household survey (n=40) and key informant interviews (n=9) were conducted to explore the local perception about existing problems, major conflicting species habitat components, conservation threats and attitude towards the large mammals. A workshop was also held to discuss information about the conflicting species, possible solutions, and the ranking of threats based on a relative ranking system. A total of 51 individuals belonging to six species of large mammals were found in LMBC. Distribution was primarily confined to the south of the corridor, and the relative abundance, in descending order, is the Blue bull (29.4%), Asian elephant (25.5%), Spotted deer (21.5%), Wild boar (15.7%), Common leopard (5.9%) and Bengal tiger (2%). Major conservation threats were forest encroachment and habitat fragmentation (Very High), followed by grazing and forest product consumption (High), natural disaster (Medium) and illegal poaching, infrastructure construction, and invasive species (Low). The LMBC was found to support six large mammals, where mostly Asian elephants and Blue bull are using it for migration.

Aklesh Kumar Sah, Bivek Gautam, Santosh Bhattarai,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2020)
Abstract

The distribution of Cantor's Kukri Snake Oligodon cyclurus has been poorly documented in its geographic range from Cambodia, China, Bangladesh, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand and Vietnam. We provide confirmed locality records with notes on some aspects of natural history information for O. cyclurus. Although the species is designated as Least Concern according to IUCN Red list of Threatened Species, the species is facing multiple threats like roadkills and vindictive killing. We suggest a more detailed inventory to better understand its biology, distribution patterns, population status and molecular identity to aid in a more comprehensive global conservation action.

Harshil Patel, Raju Vyas,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2020)
Abstract

We re-address the findings of recent publications on herpetofaunal diversity of certain urban areas of Gujarat, India, in which, authors have claimed to report nine frogs and two lizard species for the first time from the State, without any morphological data and/or voucher specimens. We present our critique and comments, with the known distributional ranges of these species and on these erroneous records. We also advocate removal of such species from the faunal list of Gujarat until confirmed reports, based on correctly identified vouchers, are presented. We recommend here that identification of a species should be done following standard protocols and by facilitating the deposition of voucher specimen/s in responsible public repositories for studies involving taxonomy, morphology and range extension.

Mehmet Kürşat Şahin, Musa Geçit, Mehmet Zülfü Yıldız,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2020)
Abstract

In this study, new data on the distribution of the Glossy-bellied racer, Platyceps ventromaculatus from the Anatolian Peninsula is presented by field surveys in September 2019. The color pattern, and morphological and pholidolial characteristics were assessed. As a result, the morphology-based results are similar to previous records but the given occurrence record from Kiziltepe, Mardin Province extends the known distribution area of the species in Southeastern Anatolia.

Khan Ashaharraza, Nirmal U. Kulkarni, K. P. Dinesh, Abhijeet Narsinrao Dani,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2020)
Abstract

Schneider’s Toad, Duttaphrynus scaber (Schneider, 1799) is known to be distributed over the coastal peninsular, northern parts of central India and northeastern states of India. However, despite the availability of multiple published reports, there are few verified records of its occurrence from central India. Herein, we present two records of D. scaber, one from the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra State, central India with morphometric data, another from northern Western Ghats, from the Goa region, with morphometric, as well as molecular, data. The site selection for dormancy, sympatric species, and microhabitat preferences during the breeding season of Duttaphrynus scaber is discussed.

Bipana Maiya Sadadev, Thakur Silwal, Bijaya Dhami, Nabaraj Thapa, Bijaya Neupane, Anisha Rana, Harsha Bahadur Singh,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2021)
Abstract

Few researches have been conducted on the hispid hare Caprolagus hispidus, an endangered small mammal native to the southern foothills of the Himalayas. In major protected areas of Nepal, grassland burning has been considered as one of the most important habitat management tools however its effects on grassland dependent species such as hispid hare has been less explored. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the grassland burning practices and its effect on distribution pattern of hispid hare at Shuklaphanta National Park, far-western Nepal. A total of 90 plots were laid in unburned (n= 45) and burned areas (n= 45) from November 2017 to May 2018. Two different approaches of grassland burning were observed: alternate and complete burning. Grassland burns are conducted from November to April each year, which coincides with the prime breeding season of hispid hares. A total of 89 pellet groups were observed in 22 plots out of 45 unburned plots while a total of 56 pellet groups were found in 17 plots out of 45 burned plots, both showing clumped type of distribution pattern of hispid hare in the study site. Higher number of fresh pellets was observed in the unburned plot. In contrast, higher number of old pellets was found in the burned plots. Thus, it is suggested that alternate year burning practices might have more positive effects on distribution and survival of this endangered species, rather than every year.

Ashish Kumar Jangid, Ravi Kumar Sharma, Dr. Abhijit Das,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (12-2021)
Abstract

We present the first-ever annotated checklist on snakes of the proposed Jawai Community Conservation Reserve of southwestern Rajasthan, India. We opportunistically encountered 26 species of snakes from the study area during the years 2015 to 2017. We have also collated a distribution synopsis for all the observed species with respect to the state of Rajasthan.

B K Sharma, Sumita Sharma,
Volume 3, Issue 4 (12-2021)
Abstract

Our assessment of Rotifera biodiversity of the floodplain wetlands of the Majuli River Island of the Brahmaputra basin in Assam state, northeast India (NEI) reveals a total of 175 species belonging to 39 genera and 19 families. The rich and diverse assemblages of the phylum categorize the Majuli as one of the megadiverse Rotifera region of India. The observed biodiversity of  Rotifera is hypothesized to be associated with the habitat diversity of the Majuli wetlands, including its varied aquatic macrophytes, the location of the study areas in the ‘Indo-Burmese biodiversity hotspot’ and the ‘Rotiferologist effect’, and merits conservation interest in light of the extinction threat to this alluvial floodplain. We record one rotifer species as new to the Indian sub-region and NEI, and 29 species as new records from the Majuli. We also consider various newly recorded species to be of global and regional biogeography interest, with some hypothesized to have a biogeographic role linked to the ‘Assam gateway’. High richness of Lecane > LepadellaTrichocerca, the richness of Testudinella, and the paucity of Brachionus species are noteworthy features. Reports of 175 species from floodplain lakes and 148 species from small wetlands indicate biodiverse rotifer assemblages in these two categories of wetlands and present a useful contribution to Rotifera ecological diversity of the Indian and the tropical floodplains.

Rishi Baral, Yadav Ghimirey, Basudev Neupane, Baburam Lamichhane, Santosh Bhattarai, Karan Bahadur Shah,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2022)
Abstract

Four specimens of the Large-toothed Ferret Badger Melogale personata I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire were found at separate sites in Marshyangdi Rural Municipality, Ward No 4, Srichaur, Tangring, Lamjung district, Nepal. The first individual was captured alive by local people on 4th January 2017 and the second was found dead on 17th January 2017. The third alive and fourth road-killed specimens of M. personata were photographed from Marshyangdi Rural Municipality, on 9th July 2020, 26th November 2021, respectively.
The species was recorded at the border region of the Annapurna Conservation Area, approximately 203 km from Kathmandu in a tropical forest alongside the Marshyangdi River. The specimens were examined carefully and identified on a morphological basis. The present account represents the first authentic record of M. personata in the Annapurna Conservation Area, moreover also for Nepal.
 

Krishnendu Mondal, Pooja Chourasia, Shilpi Gupta, Kalyanasundaram Sankar, Qamar Qureshi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2022)
Abstract

To understand leopard’s generalist nature and whether they have any degree of specialization, a study on resource selection of the Indian Leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) was carried out in atropical dry deciduous forest of Sariska Tiger Reserve, Western India from January 2007 to May 2011 through camera trapping under mark-recapture framework. Camera trapping was done in the intensive study area (230 km2) covering 85 to 130 occasions each year with 200 camera locations. In total, 40 individuals of Indian leopards were identified in the study area, of which seven leopards were selected for the resource selection analysis. The resource selection of Indian leopards was investigated in two scales. Firstly, habitat selection was studied using compositional analysis comparing the habitat availability in geographic range of all seven Indian leopards and utilization by individual animalwithin it. The results showed that habitat selection was non-random (p< 0.001). The preference of habitat selection of leopard was in the following order: Boswellia forest> Anogeissus forest> Acacia forest> Butea forest> Zizyphus forest> Barren land> Scrubland. Secondly, resource selection was studied through a generalized linear mixed-effect model (GLMM) comparing the resource availability and utilization in each individual leopard’s range. The results showed that leopard preferred Anogeissus dominated forest followed by Zizyphus mixed forest and scrubland. In addition, leopard preferred the habitat with higher encounter rate of the Sambar (Rusa unicolor) and Chital (Axis axis) and less used habitat with higher encounter rate of livestock. The results revealed that Indian leopards showed a significant degree of preference to moderate to thick vegetation cover and wild prey species rather than areas with open forest types and domestic prey species.  

Rajendra Singh, Garima Singh,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2022)
Abstract

In this review, an updated checklist of spider diversity in Rajasthan, India is presented. A total of 173 spider species from 90 genera belonging to 25 families are listed with records/descriptions originating from only 20 out of 33 districts of Rajasthan. A total of 74 taxa recorded from various districts of Rajasthan were identified only up to generic level. The maximum number of spider species were recorded from Jodhpur district (72 species), followed by Ajmer (69 species), Bharatpur (66 species), Pali (63 species), Jaipur (58 species), Dholpur and Karauli (38 species each), Jhunjhunu and Sikar (31 species each), Sri Ganga Nagar (26 species), Hanumangarh (25 species), and Jaisalmer (26 species). A fewer number of species are known from other districts. Thus far, no faunal surveys of spiders have been conducted in 13 districts of Rajasthan. Most of the national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, forest areas, agricultural fields, human dwellings, etc. within the state still await intensive and extensive surveys to record the spider fauna.

Spartaco Gippoliti, Dario Fraschetti, Osman Gedow Amir, Francesco M. Angelici,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2022)
Abstract

There is an increased recognition of the threat status of the African lion (Panthera leo), once a widespread top predator of open African habitats. However, our knowledge about the biology of the species is often based on a few study sites in South and East Africa, and the present subspecific taxonomy developed by the IUCN reinforces an idea of homogeneity of the species in Africa. A synthesis of available knowledge regarding the lions of Southern Somalia, formerly proposed as a distinct subspecies, Panthera leo somaliensis is presented. Particular attention is paid to the issue of manelessness in males, a phenomenon that has been studied in Tsavo (N.E. Kenya) but it is highlighted for the first time for the Southern Somalia region. Although our data cannot lead to a definitive answer about the taxonomic status of Somali lions, there is enough evidence to call for further studies and conservation efforts, also in the light of the increased evidence of genetic discontinuity in lions associated with strong ecological barriers.


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