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Showing 38 results for Type of Study: Original Research Article

Hamed Mousavi-Sabet,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2019)
Abstract

The number of exotic freshwater ornamental fish species released from the aquarium trade in Iran has been increasing in recent years. All recorded exotic aquarium fishes are listed here, including 8 species in 7 genera, 5 families, and 5 orders. The introduced species belong to the Neotropical, Nearctic and Palearctic fish elements. Their distribution ranges within Iranian freshwater ecosystems are given, and the presence of Koi (ornamental Cyprinus carpio) are recorded for the first time from Iranian inland waters. Eradication programs need to be accompanied by a public awareness campaign to ensure that the aquarium trade and hobbyists do not release these pet fishes into natural habitats.

Alireza Pesarakloo, Masoumeh Najibzadeh ,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2019)
Abstract

In the present study, we studied the development and morphology of different larval stages of Pelophylax bedriagae (Camerano) at two rearing temperatures (20 and 24 °C). Eggs were collected from a breeding site in western Iran. Diagnostic morphological characters are provided for Gosner (1960) larval stages 1–46. The larvae hatched about seven days after egg deposition in the laboratory. A principal diagnostic feature, the formation of the funnel-shaped oral disc, became discernible about ten days after hatching at Gosner stage 21 and degenerated at Gosner stage 42. Based on our results, the longest metamorphosis time was observed at 20 °C whilst the shortest metamorphosis time occurred at 24 °C. The largest body length of larval P. bedriagae measured about 54 mm in 70 days after egg deposition. Compared with the majority of other Palearctic anurans, it appears that embryonic and larval development is usually slow in P. bedriagae.

Spartaco Gippoliti,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2019)
Abstract

Over the past decades, zoos and aquaria have shifted from an emphasis on ex situ conservation of animal species to strategies that emphasize educative and fund-raising efforts to halt environmental degradation ‘in situ’. However, it is here proposed that ‘ex situ’ breeding programs have a strong educative potential and if they are coupled with a fine-grain taxonomy based on phylogenetic thinking, they can be perceived as a strong ethical message against homogenization of global biodiversity to be directed at global, national and local levels.

Asadollah Hosseini-Chegeni,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2019)
Abstract

Passeromyia is a genus of flies associated with birds’ nests. Adults of Passeromyia heterochaeta were found within the houses near to domestic pigeon nests in Lorestan Province, western Iran. Flies were identified at the genus level by analysis of COI  sequences of a representative specimen. Then, the specimens were identified according to morphological characteristics as P. heterochaeta and the sequence was submitted to the GenBank under this name. DNA barcoding approach can be used for approximate identification before using morphological keys.

Abolghasem Khaleghizadeh, Shahrul Anuar,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2019)
Abstract

Behavioral events of two raptor species, the White-bellied Sea Eagle, Haliaeetus leucogaster Gmelin, 1788 and Brahminy Kite, Haliastur indus Boddaert, 1783 were studied once every two weeks in two locations in northwestern Malaysia, namely Balik Pulau and Kuala Sepetang, from September 2012 to September 2013. The average total number of behavioral events per hour was 45.9 (±40.3 SD), 117.0 (±131.7 SD), and 285.8 (±185.0 SD) for H. leucogaster at Balik Pulau, and H. indus at Balik Pulau and Kuala Sepetang, respectively. The total number of individuals of each species observed was significantly influenced by the time of day and weather (p<0.05). It was observed that the percentage of time spent for perching, flying, hunting and competition was significantly different between these two species and between two locations. The total number of behavioral events during observation dates was no different for the White-bellied Sea Eagle than that of the Brahminy Kite. Overall, the percentage of time that the birds spent perching, flying, hunting, social behavior and competition was different between species. The highest rate of successful predation was 94.6% for H. leucogaster while it was lower for H. indus at Balik Pulau (72.8%). The time of day was an effective factor for determining behaviors of H. leucogaster while it was not significant for H. indus. The effect of boat numbers and weather on behavior varied between species and locations. The state of the tide and the number of crows present did not have any significant effect on activities of these two species. Results of the comparison of the percentage of occurrence of five types of behavior between adults and juveniles showed that behaviors of perching, hunting and social behavior were different for H. leucogaster, behaviors of perching, flying and social interaction for H. indus at Balik Pulau and behaviors of perching, flying, hunting and social interaction for H. indus at Kuala Sepetang. However, they did not show different behavioral events of involving competition.

Vahid Sepahvand, Christopher C. Tudge,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (12-2019)
Abstract

An annotated checklist of the extant burrowing shrimps (infraorders Axiidea and Gebiidea) of southern waters of Iran is presented for the first time. Six species of Gebiidea and 18 species of Axiidea have been documented from the southern waters of Iran, based on published literature. The species belong to six families: Upogebiidae (6 species), Axiidae (1), Callianassidae (5), Callianideidae (1), Callichiridae (9) and Ctenochelidae (2). The Persian Gulf with 18 species appears to be more diverse than the Gulf of Oman with four species, and two species are common in the both gulfs. Corallianassa martensi (Miers, 1884) is recorded for the first time across the Iranian coast. The present finding is based on specimens collected from the Chabahar, Gulf of Oman coast. A brief diagnosis and illustrations of C. martensi are provided.

Harshil Patel, Raju Vyas, Bhautik Dudhatra, Vaibhav Naik, Ashish Chavda, Devendra Chauhan, Amit Vaghashiya, Ramesh Vagadiya, Pranav Vaghashiya,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (12-2019)
Abstract

The Saurashtra Peninsula, the largest geographical region of Gujarat state, is a prominent place for herpetofauna in the state and recent herpetological explorations have uncovered three new reptilian species from this region. However, fine scale information on the distribution status of amphibians and reptiles, and baseline information about the regional herpetological diversity of many areas of Saurashtra is still lacking. In an attempt to fill the gaps in information, we surveyed the Girnar hill complex of Gujarat state for its herpetofaunal diversity from September, 2016 to August, 2018. In all, 56 species, comprising 10 species of amphibians belonging to 7 genera and 3 families and 46 species of reptiles, belonging to 31 genera and 15 families were recorded; of which, 2 unidentified frog and 2 unidentified lizard species need further taxonomic attention.

Farshid Davoodi, Abbas Raisi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (12-2019)
Abstract

In this study, differing adult sex ratios of the Southern platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus were examined for fish larval number and the survival of fish fry. Sixty adult individuals of X. maculatus were randomly divided into 5 equal groups with various male to female sex ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1, and 3:1, respectively. After a month when the male and female fish were kept together in different experimental groups, all the female fish became pregnant. Four different factors in each group were recorded - notably the length of pregnancy, number of fry produced, number of live fry after 40 days, and final percentage survival. According to the analyzed data, the number of fry, the number of surviving fry after 40 days, and the percentage survival were significantly higher in the first group with a male to female sex ratio of 1:1 than the other experimental groups. Our results suggest that the best sex ratio for maximum efficiency is 1:1.

Sudesh Batuwita, Sampath Udugampala, Madura de Silva, Jiaojiao Diao, Udeni Edirisinghe,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (12-2019)
Abstract

The amphibian fauna of Sri Lanka comprises 120 species, including 107 (~90.0%) endemic species. They belong to five families: Bufonidae, Dicroglossidae, Ichthyophiidae, Microhylidae, and Rhacophoridae. Based on distribution, we recognized five zoogeographic zones for them, Central Hills, Dry Zone, Knuckles Range, Lowland Wet Zone, and Rakwana Hills. Fifty three species were reported from the Central Hills (48 endemics [90.6%] and 42 [79.2%] threatened species). 47 species were recorded from the Lowland Wet Zone, including 36 (76.6%) endemics and 28 (59.6%) threatened species. The Knuckles Range had 25 species, of which, 19 (76.0%) were endemics and 15 (60.0%) are threatened species. 19 species were reported from Dry Zone including seven endemics (36.8%) and four threatened species (21.1%). Out of 29 species, which inhabited in the Rakwana Hills, 26 were endemics (~89.7%) including 24 (82.8%) threatened species. Species diversity along the elevational gradient was also observed with the highest species richness in the mid-elevational localities. Family Ichthyophiidae can be considered as the least studied family. Recent rediscoveries and studies have helped to reduce the number of extinct species from 21 to 18. It is speculated that some of the other extinct species have to be rediscovered or probably were misidentified as other species. About 90% of Sri Lankan amphibians occur in the regions with the highest human populations where there are established agricultural lands. Loss of habitats, competition due to anthropogenic species and invasive species, pollution (cause for malformations, parasites, and other diseases), and climate change appear to be major threats.

Keyvan Abbasi, Mehdi Moradi, Alireza Mirzajani, Morteza Nikpour, Yaghobali Zahmatkesh, Asghar Abdoli, Hamed Mousavi-Sabet,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (12-2019)
Abstract

The Anzali Wetland is one of the most important water bodies in Iran, due to the Caspian migratory fish spawning, located in the southern Caspian Sea basin, Iran. During a long-term monitoring program, between 1994 to 2019, identification and distribution of fish species were surveyed in five different locations inside the Anzali Wetland and eleven related rivers in its catchment area. In this study 72 fish species were recognized belonging to 19 orders, 21 families and 53 genera, including 66 species in the wetland and 53 species in the rivers. Among the 72 identified species, 34 species were resident in freshwater, 9 species were anadromous, 9 species live in estuarine and the others exist in different habitats. These species include 4 endemic species, 50 native species and 18 exotic species to Iranian waters. The number of species in different locations inside the Anzali Wetland was comparatively similar while it had high variation in different rivers. Twenty fish species are new records for the Anzali Wetland basin, including 10 estuarine, 5 ornamental, 2 riverine, one anadromous, one euryhaline and a small exotic fish.

Ali Gholamifard, Bruce D. Patterson,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (12-2019)
Abstract

Iran is home to three genera and four species of hedgehogs in the family Erinaceidae. One of these, Paraechinus hypomelas, is known to occur in Fars Province. In the present study, we report two new distribution records of the Long-eared Hedgehog, Hemiechinus auritus from the southwestern region of Fars Province (Varavi Mountain in Mohr and Lamerd Townships in the southern Zagros Mountains), marking a range extension for this species in southern Iran.

Paolo Parenti,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2020)
Abstract

A checklist of the croakers of the world, family Sciaenidae, is presented. A total of 584 nominal species belonging to 289 valid species and 69 genera is included. Four genera, Johnius with 32 species, Cynoscion 25, Stellifer 24, and Umbrina 17 contains 30% of the species, whereas 43% of the genera (31) are monotypic. Eques is a valid genus-name and should be used instead of Equetus. Fourteen nominal species remain unidentifiable and are placed in incertae sedis, whereas 12 nominal species currently described in sciaenid genera lay outside the family. Among this latter group two of them represent senior synonyms of well-established species: Sciaena guttata Bloch and Schneider, 1801 and Sciaena pallida Walbaum, 1792 predate Giuris margaritaceus (Valenciennes, 1837) and Cymolutes praetextatus (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824), respectively, and they are here declared nomina oblita.
 

Kamran Almasieh, Mohammad Moazami,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2020)
Abstract

In wildlife management, sufficient information about fauna is vital for conservation of species and their habitats. Furthermore, the number of bird species in a habitat can represent an index of habitat quality. Therefore, this study was carried out to identify bird fauna on a university campus (i.e. Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, abbreviated as ASNRUKH) in the southwest of Iran in order to determine the number of bird species, the day of their arrival, and the presence time of migratory birds on campus. Field survey and identification of birds were carried out in the study area, with an area of 72.9 ha, using binoculars from June 2017 to May 2018 in linear transects spaced 20 meters apart. We identified 62 bird species, including nine raptors, which is equal to 11.25% of bird species in Iran. In total, 19 residents, five summer visitors, 21 winter visitors and 17 passing migratory birds were identified. The lowest co-occurrence number of species (21–25) was observed from middle June to early October and the maximum number of concurrent species (38–41) were recorded from late November to early January. The Western Barn Owl Tyto alba was the only resident raptor, which is part of an integrated pest management system throughout the year. ASNRUKH’s long-established persistent favorable microclimate supports both resident and migratory birds. In addition, the study area provides food and safety for migratory birds from across the globe as a stopover site.
 

Mazaher Zamani-Faradonbe, Yazdan Keivany, Salar Dorafshan, Mojtaba Abbasi-Jeshvaghani,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2020)
Abstract

Organisms can adapt to habitat conditions that ensure their survival. Habitat separation can lead to different populations of body shape during the phenotypic plasticity process. Both traditional and modern (geometric) morphology are being used in fish population studies. In this study, the body shape differences between Garra rufa (Heckel) populations captured in the Jarrahi River (from the Tigris Basin) were investigated using traditional and geometric morphometric methods. The samples were captured from the Rostam Abad, Aghajari and Behbahan tributaries and transferred to the laboratory. For the traditional morphometric analysis, 10 meristic characters and 19 morphometric characters were measured. Geometric morphological information was extracted using 13 landmark points on left side photographs of individual fish. According to the results of the traditional morphometric analysis, there were differences between the three populations in meristic (lateral line scales, predorsal scales, circamucaudal scales) and morphometric (14 of 19 characters) traits. In the geometric morphometric analysis, the major part of the shape variation is due to landmark points in the head region and the dorsal fin base, with the anal fin and caudal peduncle being the most conservative body regions. The populations had significant differences in body shape with populations from Aghajari and Behbahan tributaries being most similar and the Rostam Abad population was different from the two other populations.

Shurooq Abdullah Najim, Kadhim Salih Al-Hadlag,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2020)
Abstract

The widow spider Latrodectus dahli Levi, 1959 is recorded for the first time from Iraq, based on four female specimens collected in Basra Province. There are 32 valid species of the genus Latrodectus with a worldwide distribution. The female copulatory organ is illustrated. Latrodectus dahli is similar to L. hystrix Simon, 1890 in the female internal duct system but differs in the shape and coloration of the opisthosoma. Distribution records now include North Africa, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Iran, Central Asia (WSC, 2020), and now Iraq.
 

Spartaco Gippoliti, Manuela Lai, Giuliano Milana,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2020)
Abstract

Recent conservation history of Cervus corsicanus Erxleben, 1777 is reviewed and future prospects discussed in the framework of increasing knowledge of its evolutionary history. This unique deer is definitively not native to Sardinia and Corsica but owes its survival to a protohistoric assisted colonization by humans. Accordingly, populations in Sardinia (and Corsica) should be managed to maintain maximum genetic diversity while minimizing ecological and economic damages in an unbalanced island ecosystem that must be perceived as “ex situ” from the evolutionary history of the deer. It is increasingly important that steps are taken to reintroduce Cervus corsicanus back to the Italian Peninsula.

Kopila Kafle, Dol Raj Thanet, Prabin Poudel, Deepak Gautam, Goma Thapa, Pradeep Bhatt,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2020)
Abstract

Wildlife corridors connect isolated patches of habitat and support the movement of migratory species from one site to another. Human disturbances cause forest degradation and habitat fragmentation adding to the high risk of species extinction. We laid out 44 grids of 2 km × 2 km in Laljhadi Mohana Biological Corridor (LMBC). In each grid, we generated line transects ranging from 1.5 to 2 km and a systematic line transect survey was carried out with single replication to assess the distribution and relative abundance of large mammals. GPS coordinates were recorded for each direct sighting or indirect sign. Similarly, a local household survey (n=40) and key informant interviews (n=9) were conducted to explore the local perception about existing problems, major conflicting species habitat components, conservation threats and attitude towards the large mammals. A workshop was also held to discuss information about the conflicting species, possible solutions, and the ranking of threats based on a relative ranking system. A total of 51 individuals belonging to six species of large mammals were found in LMBC. Distribution was primarily confined to the south of the corridor, and the relative abundance, in descending order, is the Blue bull (29.4%), Asian elephant (25.5%), Spotted deer (21.5%), Wild boar (15.7%), Common leopard (5.9%) and Bengal tiger (2%). Major conservation threats were forest encroachment and habitat fragmentation (Very High), followed by grazing and forest product consumption (High), natural disaster (Medium) and illegal poaching, infrastructure construction, and invasive species (Low). The LMBC was found to support six large mammals, where mostly Asian elephants and Blue bull are using it for migration.

Aklesh Kumar Sah, Bivek Gautam, Santosh Bhattarai,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2020)
Abstract

The distribution of Cantorchr('39')s Kukri Snake Oligodon cyclurus has been poorly documented in its geographic range from Cambodia, China, Bangladesh, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand and Vietnam. We provide confirmed locality records with notes on some aspects of natural history information for O. cyclurus. Although the species is designated as Least Concern according to IUCN Red list of Threatened Species, the species is facing multiple threats like roadkills and vindictive killing. We suggest a more detailed inventory to better understand its biology, distribution patterns, population status and molecular identity to aid in a more comprehensive global conservation action.

Sudesh Batuwita, Sampath Udugampala, Udeni Edirisinghe,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2020)
Abstract

We reviewed the species referred to Eutropis carinata complex from Sri Lanka. We provided the data on the lectotype of Eutropis carinata along with a discussion on its synonyms. Examination of the lectotype of Sincus carinatus Schneider, 1801 (= Eutropis carinata), shows this taxon is not conspecific with Mabuya carinata lankae Deraniyagala, 1953 (= Eutropis carinata lankae). Therefore, we resurrected Eutropis lankae (Deraniyagala) as a valid species from Sri Lanka. Based on the available data, we here tentatively recognize Tiliqua rubriventris Hardwicke and Gray, 1829 (= Eutropis rubriventris) as a valid species. Also, a new species of the genus Eutropis Fitzinger is described from Sri Lanka. The new species was previously confused with E. carinata (Schneider) and may be the source of earlier records of E. beddomei (Jerdon) from the Central Hills of Sri Lanka. The new species, Eutropis resetarii sp. nov. differs from the lectotype of E. carinata by the following characters: widely (vs. narrowly) separated supranasal scales, first supraocular not in contact (vs. in contact) with frontal, third pair of chin shields separated slightly or not touching the second pair of chin shields (vs. in contact broadly with the second pair) and 30 (vs. 32) scale rows across the midbody. Eutropis resetarii sp. nov. is distinguished from E. lankae by the following characters: first loreal does not reach the dorsal surface of snout (vs. reaches in E. lankae); lower preocular larger (vs. smaller) than the anterior loreal scale; lateral border of postmental in complete contact with the first and the second (vs. first and partially the second) infralabials; third pair of chin shields not in contact or in narrow (vs. broad) contact with second pair of chin shields; palm and sole scales rounded, more or less juxtaposed (vs. tubercle-like imbricate scales); and having greater external ear opening size, 40–46% (vs. 23–38%) of eye diameter. Eutropis resetarii sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other congeners by a combination of the following characters: in having widely separated supranasals and prefrontals, lacking postnasals, prefrontals reaching lateral sides of snout, only the first supraocular in contact with frontal, six or seven supraciliaries, lower preocular as large as first loreal, two primary temporals, upper pretemporal smaller than lower and both touching parietals, parietals completely separated by interparietal; two post-supralabials, first and second pairs of chin shields separated by a single scale, third pair of chin shields not in contact or in narrow contact with second pair of chin shields; juxtaposed rounded palm and sole scales, comparatively robust digits, having greater external ear opening size (40–46% of eye diameter) and presence of 14–15 subdigital lamellae under 4th digit of pes. The new species has been recorded from the highest elevations (from ~1000 m to ~1600 m), while E. lankae has a wider distribution from coast to ~900 m. The distributional ranges of these two species are therefore allopatric.

Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah, Masoud Sattari, Javid Imanpour Namin, Mehdi Bibak,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2020)
Abstract

Fish stock assessment in the Caspian Sea requires employing some growth indicators such as length-weight relationship (LWR). Size determination in fish is more biologically relevant than age, because several ecological and physiological indicators are more size-dependent compared to age-dependent. This study aims to examine the length-weight relationship and condition factor of Rutilus kutum (Kamensky) from the southern Caspian Sea. 218 fish samples were caught using a gill net from Anzali, Astara, Kiashahr, Sari and Torkaman Port from September 2018 to February 2019. Negative allometric growth patterns were observed in Sari and Torkaman Port and positive allometric growth patterns were found in Anzali, Kiashahr and Astara stations. The fish caught from Anzali displayed the maximum condition factor. LWRs are not continuous over the year and LWR indices may vary significantly due to biological, food availability, temporal and sampling factors, and also by fish health and sex. Relative weights in fisheries studies can be used for comparing condition across different populations and species. Investigations carried out indicate that growth of R. kutum in recent years has decreased.


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