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Showing 25 results for Subject: Species Diversity

Shurooq Abdullah Najim, Kadhim Salih Al-Hadlag,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2020)
Abstract

The widow spider Latrodectus dahli Levi, 1959 is recorded for the first time from Iraq, based on four female specimens collected in Basra Province. There are 32 valid species of the genus Latrodectus with a worldwide distribution. The female copulatory organ is illustrated. Latrodectus dahli is similar to L. hystrix Simon, 1890 in the female internal duct system but differs in the shape and coloration of the opisthosoma. Distribution records now include North Africa, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Iran, Central Asia (WSC, 2020), and now Iraq.
 

Spartaco Gippoliti, Manuela Lai, Giuliano Milana,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2020)
Abstract

Recent conservation history of Cervus corsicanus Erxleben, 1777 is reviewed and future prospects discussed in the framework of increasing knowledge of its evolutionary history. This unique deer is definitively not native to Sardinia and Corsica but owes its survival to a protohistoric assisted colonization by humans. Accordingly, populations in Sardinia (and Corsica) should be managed to maintain maximum genetic diversity while minimizing ecological and economic damages in an unbalanced island ecosystem that must be perceived as “ex situ” from the evolutionary history of the deer. It is increasingly important that steps are taken to reintroduce Cervus corsicanus back to the Italian Peninsula.

Kopila Kafle, Dol Raj Thanet, Prabin Poudel, Deepak Gautam, Goma Thapa, Pradeep Bhatt,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2020)
Abstract

Wildlife corridors connect isolated patches of habitat and support the movement of migratory species from one site to another. Human disturbances cause forest degradation and habitat fragmentation adding to the high risk of species extinction. We laid out 44 grids of 2 km × 2 km in Laljhadi Mohana Biological Corridor (LMBC). In each grid, we generated line transects ranging from 1.5 to 2 km and a systematic line transect survey was carried out with single replication to assess the distribution and relative abundance of large mammals. GPS coordinates were recorded for each direct sighting or indirect sign. Similarly, a local household survey (n=40) and key informant interviews (n=9) were conducted to explore the local perception about existing problems, major conflicting species habitat components, conservation threats and attitude towards the large mammals. A workshop was also held to discuss information about the conflicting species, possible solutions, and the ranking of threats based on a relative ranking system. A total of 51 individuals belonging to six species of large mammals were found in LMBC. Distribution was primarily confined to the south of the corridor, and the relative abundance, in descending order, is the Blue bull (29.4%), Asian elephant (25.5%), Spotted deer (21.5%), Wild boar (15.7%), Common leopard (5.9%) and Bengal tiger (2%). Major conservation threats were forest encroachment and habitat fragmentation (Very High), followed by grazing and forest product consumption (High), natural disaster (Medium) and illegal poaching, infrastructure construction, and invasive species (Low). The LMBC was found to support six large mammals, where mostly Asian elephants and Blue bull are using it for migration.

Aklesh Kumar Sah, Bivek Gautam, Santosh Bhattarai,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2020)
Abstract

The distribution of Cantorchr('39')s Kukri Snake Oligodon cyclurus has been poorly documented in its geographic range from Cambodia, China, Bangladesh, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand and Vietnam. We provide confirmed locality records with notes on some aspects of natural history information for O. cyclurus. Although the species is designated as Least Concern according to IUCN Red list of Threatened Species, the species is facing multiple threats like roadkills and vindictive killing. We suggest a more detailed inventory to better understand its biology, distribution patterns, population status and molecular identity to aid in a more comprehensive global conservation action.

Frank E. Zachos,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2020)
Abstract

Iran is a country with a very rich mammal fauna, including such iconic species as the Asiatic cheetah Acinonyx jubatus (Griffith), the Persian leopard Panthera pardus saxicolor Pocock, the Mesopotamian fallow deer Dama mesopotamica (Brooke), and the Asiatic wild ass Equus hemionus Pallas. There are no less than eight species of cat (Felidae) living in Iran today, and until recently there were even two more (the Caspian tiger Panthera tigris virgata (Illiger) and the Asiatic lion Panthera leo persica (Meyer)). For comparison, the whole European continent harbours a mere three felids. A recent atlas now adds to our knowledge on this spectacular mammalian line-up and its dissemination. The book, also available as a pdf, by Karami, Ghadirian and Faizolahi lists 183 terrestrial and 16 aquatic species of mammals (including the Caspian tiger and Asiatic lion), from the dugong and the Caspian seal Pusa caspica (Gmelin) to whales and dolphins, bats (Chiroptera) and rodents (Rodentia), from Perissodactyla to Lagomorpha and from Carnivora to Chiroptera ...

Sudesh Batuwita, Sampath Udugampala, Udeni Edirisinghe,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2020)
Abstract

We reviewed the species referred to Eutropis carinata complex from Sri Lanka. We provided the data on the lectotype of Eutropis carinata along with a discussion on its synonyms. Examination of the lectotype of Sincus carinatus Schneider, 1801 (= Eutropis carinata), shows this taxon is not conspecific with Mabuya carinata lankae Deraniyagala, 1953 (= Eutropis carinata lankae). Therefore, we resurrected Eutropis lankae (Deraniyagala) as a valid species from Sri Lanka. Based on the available data, we here tentatively recognize Tiliqua rubriventris Hardwicke and Gray, 1829 (= Eutropis rubriventris) as a valid species. Also, a new species of the genus Eutropis Fitzinger is described from Sri Lanka. The new species was previously confused with E. carinata (Schneider) and may be the source of earlier records of E. beddomei (Jerdon) from the Central Hills of Sri Lanka. The new species, Eutropis resetarii sp. nov. differs from the lectotype of E. carinata by the following characters: widely (vs. narrowly) separated supranasal scales, first supraocular not in contact (vs. in contact) with frontal, third pair of chin shields separated slightly or not touching the second pair of chin shields (vs. in contact broadly with the second pair) and 30 (vs. 32) scale rows across the midbody. Eutropis resetarii sp. nov. is distinguished from E. lankae by the following characters: first loreal does not reach the dorsal surface of snout (vs. reaches in E. lankae); lower preocular larger (vs. smaller) than the anterior loreal scale; lateral border of postmental in complete contact with the first and the second (vs. first and partially the second) infralabials; third pair of chin shields not in contact or in narrow (vs. broad) contact with second pair of chin shields; palm and sole scales rounded, more or less juxtaposed (vs. tubercle-like imbricate scales); and having greater external ear opening size, 40–46% (vs. 23–38%) of eye diameter. Eutropis resetarii sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other congeners by a combination of the following characters: in having widely separated supranasals and prefrontals, lacking postnasals, prefrontals reaching lateral sides of snout, only the first supraocular in contact with frontal, six or seven supraciliaries, lower preocular as large as first loreal, two primary temporals, upper pretemporal smaller than lower and both touching parietals, parietals completely separated by interparietal; two post-supralabials, first and second pairs of chin shields separated by a single scale, third pair of chin shields not in contact or in narrow contact with second pair of chin shields; juxtaposed rounded palm and sole scales, comparatively robust digits, having greater external ear opening size (40–46% of eye diameter) and presence of 14–15 subdigital lamellae under 4th digit of pes. The new species has been recorded from the highest elevations (from ~1000 m to ~1600 m), while E. lankae has a wider distribution from coast to ~900 m. The distributional ranges of these two species are therefore allopatric.

Boris Kryštufek,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2020)
Abstract

It is a truism that mammalian systematics is a dynamic field of research and that new species are still being discovered. The rate of change, however, is truly spectacular and the number of mammal species, estimated at 5,416 in 2005 (Wilson and Reeder, 2005) reached 6,495 just 13 years later (Burgin et al., 2018), i.e. an astonishing rise of 20%. Behind this progress is the wide application of new research tools, above all, highly effective DNA-based methods capable of reconstructing evolutionary pathways and delimiting morphologically cryptic species. Faunal revisions are as badly needed in this time of taxonomic revolution as ever before. They are of particular value when done by experts active in the fields of taxonomy research and species delimitation. It was therefore a pleasant surprise to receive a new publication of this kind which focuses on the rodents of Taiwan ...

Govindappa Venu, Narayanappa Govinda Raju, Mark Wilkinson, Robert Kenneth Browne, Kulkarni Varadh, Gandlahalli Narasimaiah Balakrishna, Sompalem Ramakrishna, Govindaiah Venkatachalaiah,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2020)
Abstract

In the present study, we report the discovery of the poorly known striped ichthyophiid caecilian Ichthyophis longicephalus from three new localities, each in three southern Indian states; Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Present records and available information on this species enable us to revise its IUCN Red List conservation status from Data Deficient (DD) to Least Concern (LC).

Majid Tavakoli, Somayeh Sattari, Asadollah Hosseini-Chegeni,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2020)
Abstract

Zaprionus indianus is a very successful invasive species with a high dispersion capacity. In this paper we present the first host record of the African fig fly pest for western Iran. We use molecular data to support the identification of this species. In total, 250 larval specimens were collected. After immature rearing and adult emergence under laboratory conditions, the specimens were identified as Z. indianus based on morphological characters. Then, the morphological identification was confirmed by BLAST analysis of the COI nucleotide sequence, which showed 97%–100% identity to COI sequences of Z. indianus, submitted from different parts of world. This study can provide some insights into the identification, ecology and host preference of Z. indianus as a new invasive and potentially major pomegranate pest in western Iran.

Harshil Patel, Raju Vyas,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2020)
Abstract

We re-address the findings of recent publications on herpetofaunal diversity of certain urban areas of Gujarat, India, in which, authors have claimed to report nine frogs and two lizard species for the first time from the State, without any morphological data and/or voucher specimens. We present our critique and comments, with the known distributional ranges of these species and on these erroneous records. We also advocate removal of such species from the faunal list of Gujarat until confirmed reports, based on correctly identified vouchers, are presented. We recommend here that identification of a species should be done following standard protocols and by facilitating the deposition of voucher specimen/s in responsible public repositories for studies involving taxonomy, morphology and range extension.

Mehmet Kürşat Şahin, Musa Geçit, Mehmet Zülfü Yıldız,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2020)
Abstract

In this study, new data on the distribution of the Glossy-bellied racer, Platyceps ventromaculatus from the Anatolian Peninsula is presented by field surveys in September 2019. The color pattern, and morphological and pholidolial characteristics were assessed. As a result, the morphology-based results are similar to previous records but the given occurrence record from Kiziltepe, Mardin Province extends the known distribution area of the species in Southeastern Anatolia.

Khan Ashaharraza, Nirmal U. Kulkarni, K. P. Dinesh, Abhijeet Narsinrao Dani,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2020)
Abstract

Schneider’s Toad, Duttaphrynus scaber (Schneider, 1799) is known to be distributed over the coastal peninsular, northern parts of central India and northeastern states of India. However, despite the availability of multiple published reports, there are few verified records of its occurrence from central India. Herein, we present two records of D. scaber, one from the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra State, central India with morphometric data, another from northern Western Ghats, from the Goa region, with morphometric, as well as molecular, data. The site selection for dormancy, sympatric species, and microhabitat preferences during the breeding season of Duttaphrynus scaber is discussed.

Suman Pratihar, Niloy Mandal, Kaushik Deuti,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2020)
Abstract

In this study we document the consistent presence of the long distant migrant pipits including, Blyth’s Pipit, Tawny Pipit, Tree Pipit, Olive-backed Pipit, and Richard’s Pipit in the district of West Midnapore (Paschim Medinipur) in West Bengal state, India. We confirm via photography the record of Blyth’s and Tawny Pipits for the first time in this part of the world.

Tekou Guegang, Judith Georgette Makombu, Claudine Tekounegning Tiogue, Alexia Kevine Noubissi Chiassa, Pamela Cynthia Mepa Tchiegang, Boddis Tsigua Zebaze, Augustave Kenfack,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2020)
Abstract

In order to evaluate wild clams for possible domestication with a view to aquaculture, the present study focused on the phenotypic characteristics of wild clams of the genus Egeria Roissy, 1805 in the Lower Sanaga River of Cameroon, with the main objective of contributing to a better understanding of their biology. A total of 2340 clams of different sizes were collected between March 2018 to March 2019 at three sites in the lower part of the Sanaga River, namely Bolounga-Moulongo, Mpombo-Boloy and Maldjedou-Bonapembe. Phenotypic characteristics (including internal and exterior coloration of the shell, type and number of shell stripes, color of the mantle, shape of the pallial sinus, and indices of elongation, compactness and convexity) were collected on each individual and evaluated according to the site and the season. The results showed four predominant colors on the exterior face of the shell (66.0% yellow, 29.1% brown, 4.7% dark and 0.2% pink), three colors on the internal face of the shell (89.4% white, 10.5% white-purple and 0.1% white-pink), three types and number of shell stripes (57.8% visible stripes, 23.4% barely visible stripes and 18.8% absent stripes), two colors of the mantle (17.5% white and 82.5% orange), two types of the pallial sinus (60.5% dorsally angular, and 39.5% regularly rounded), 99.8% oval shapes (elongation index), 99.7% convex shapes (convexity index) and 52.7% compact shapes (compactness index). The results for clam characteristics were not influenced by the site nor the season, apart from the compactness index which varied according to the site. Phenotypically, the clams of the Lower Sanaga River showed several similarities with the species Egeria radiata and the specimens that showed a pink color of the shell similar to the species Egeria rubicunda. Molecular characterization is therefore necessary to explain the origin of the diversity of phenotypic characteristics in the clam’s species population in this area.

Muammer Kurnaz,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2020)
Abstract

Turkey is biogeographically diverse and consequently has a rich herpetofauna. As a result of active herpetological research, the number of species has steadily increased in recent years. I present here a new checklist of amphibian and reptile species distributed in Turkey, revising the nomenclature to reflect the latest taxonomic knowledge. In addition, information about the systematics of many species is also given. In total 35 (19.4%) amphibian and 145 (80.6%) reptile species comprise the Turkish herpetofauna. Among amphibians, 16 (45.7%) anurans and 19 urodelans (54.3%) are present. Among reptiles, 11 (7.6%) testudines, 71 (49%) saurians, 3 (2.1%) amphisbaenians and 60 (41.3%) ophidians are considered part of the herpetofauna. The endemism rate in Turkey is considered relatively high with a total of 34 species (12 amphibian species – 34.3% and 22 reptile species – 15.2%) endemic to Turkey, yielding a total herpetofaunal endemism of 18.9%. While 38 species have not been threat-assessed by the IUCN, 92 of the 180 Turkish herpetofaunal species are of Least Concern (LC), 13 are Near Threatened (NT), 10 are Vulnerable (VU), 14 are Endangered (EN), and 7 are Critically Endangered (CR). In addition, 6 species are in the DD (Data Deficient) category.
 

Fanai Malsawmdawngliana, Mathipi Vabeireiryulai, Tara Malsawmdawngzuali, Lal Biakzuala, Lalengzuala Tochhawng, Hmar Tlawmte Lalremsanga,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2021)
Abstract

The occurrence of the hormurid scorpion Liocheles australasiae (Fabricius) is reported for the first time from the state of Mizoram, northeast India. The specimens were identified on the basis of morphological characters and molecular analysis using a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene. The species is reported from multiple localities within the state, constituting at least seven different populations. The specimens were larger than those from previous records.

Kaushik Deuti, Ramaswamy Aengals, Sujoy Raha, Sudipta Debnath, Ponnusamy Sathiyaselvam, Sumaithangi Rajagopalan Ganesh,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2021)
Abstract

We report on a topotypical specimen of the spot-tailed pit viper Trimeresurus erythrurus recorded from Sunderbans in India and a distant, southerly, range extension from Kakinada mangroves, based on preserved (n=1, seen in 2019) and live uncollected (n=2; seen in 2014) specimens, respectively. The specimens (n=3) have: verdant green dorsum, yellow iris, white ventrolateral stripes in males, 23 midbody scale rows, 161–172 ventrals, 61–76 subcaudals, reddish tail tip. Drawing on the published records and its apparent rarity within its type locality and lack of records from the Circar Coast of India, our study significantly adds to the knowledge on the distribution and morphology of this species. Being a medically important venomous snake, its presence in the Godavari mangrove basin calls for wider dissemination of this information among medical fraternity, in addition to fundamental researchers like academicians and herpetologists.

Paolo Parenti,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2021)
Abstract

A checklist of the damselfishes of the world, family Pomacentridae, is presented. A total of 796 nominal species belonging to 421 valid species and 29 genera is included. Most of the species are grouped in five genera: Chromis (108 species), Pomacentrus (81), Chrysiptera (40), Stegastes (39), and Amphiprion (29), but 12 genera contain only one or two species. The following main taxonomic decisions are taken: Chrysiptera personata Fowler, 1946 is a new synonym of Chrysiptera rex (Snyder 1909); Dischistodus notophthalmus (Bleeker, 1853) is the valid name for the species known as Dischistodus melanotus (Bleeker, 1858). Chaetodon rotundus Linnaeus, 1758 and Chaetodon rotundatus Lacepède, 1802 are senior synonyms of Abudefduf bengalensis (Bloch, 1787). Perca japonica Bloch, 1792 is a senior synonym of Chromis notata (Temminck and Schlegel, 1843); Pomacentrus niomatus De Vis, 1884 is a senior synonym of Stegastes fasciolatus (Ogilby, 1889); Glyphisodon sculptus Peters, 1855 is a senior synonym of Abudefduf notatus (Day, 1870). All these senior synonyms are herein regarded as nomina oblita. Neopomacentrus flavicauda is proposed as nomen novum Neopomacentrus xanthurus Allen and Randall, 1980. Stegastes adustus (Troschel, 1865) is the valid name for the species known as Stegastes dorsopunicans (Poey, 1868) and Wangia Fowler, 1954 is an available name not invalidated by Wanga Chen 1943.

Jigme Tshelthrim Wangyal, Tandel Zangpo, Sonam Phuntsho,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2021)
Abstract

We report the discovery of the Sikkim Frog, Ombrana sikimensis from Central Bhutan’s Zhemgang district, in the Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan. The frog which is found residing in a clean perennial stream is used by the local for consumption. It is supposed to heal stomach related ailments in human beings. This record will help Bhutan understand the use of the species and help in prioritizing conservation and the importance of the species.

Yatin Kalki, Chayant Gonsalves, Daniel Wylie, Karthik Sundaram, Tristan Schramer,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2021)
Abstract

Systematic and thorough studies of snake populations across large areas are rare in the tropics. Bengaluru city in southern India has not had a thorough checklist of snakes in over a century, during which time land-use changes, taxonomic revisions, and fluctuating reptile populations have left the current status of snakes of this region unclear. We combine data from snake rescues, visual encounter surveys, and other reliable records to generate a contemporary checklist of 33 snake species (15 of which being novel) present within the Bengaluru Urban District with comments on their apparent habitat preferences. We also provide evidence and insight on six additional species that have not been recorded but potentially occur within the limits of the district. Compared with the earlier checklist, all but 4 species have shown considerable decline within city limits. Additionally, all of India’s “Big Four” medically significant venomous snake species (Naja naja, Bungarus caeruleus, Daboia russelii, and Echis carinatus) are found within the district. Two of these species appear particularly well-adjusted to urbanization with serious ramifications for human-wildlife conflict and healthcare in the future. Our study provides a new baseline that can be used to monitor ophidian population trends going forward.


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